1. Lifecycle Phase(Service Strategy)
The main goal of Service Strategy is to help service providers to develop the ability to think and act in a strategic manner.
- strategy generation
- the development of markets (internal and external)
- service assets
- service catalogue
- implementation of strategy through the service lifecycle
- demand management
- financial management
- service portfolio management
- organizational development
- sourcing strategies
- strategic risks
2.1 Mintzberg’s four Ps(4Ps)の概念
- Perspective - Have a clear vision and focus.
- Position - Take a clearly defined stance.
- Plan - Form a precise notion of how the organization should develop itself.
- Pattern - Maintain consistency in decisions and actions.
2.2 Value creation(価値)
- Utility(有用性) - fitness for purpose. Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need. Utility is often summarized as “what it does”.
- Warranty(保証) - fitness for use. A promise or guarantee that a product or service will meet its agreed requirements. The availability, capacity, continuity and information security necessary to meet the customers’ requirements.
2.3 Service assets(サービス資産)
- Resources - Resources include IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service. Resources are considered to be the assets of an organization.
- Capabilities - Capabilities develop over the years. Service providers must develop distinctive capabilities in order to maintain services that are difficult to duplicate by the competition.
2.4 Service provider
- Type I: Internal service provider - An internal service provider that is embedded within a Business Unit.
- Type II: Shared Services Unit - An internal service provider that provides shared IT services to more than one Business Unit.
- Type III: External service provider - A service provider that provides IT services to external customers.
2.5 Service Strategy processes
- Financial management(会計管理)
- Demand management(需要管理)
- Service Portfolio Management (SPM:ポートフォリオ管理)
2.6 Service Strategy activities
- Defining the market
- The development of the offer
- The development of strategic assets
- Preparation for execution
There are five recognizable phases in organizational development within the spectrum of centralization and decentralization:
- Stage 1: Network - An organization in stage 1 focuses on fast, informal and ad hoc provision of services.
- Stage 2: Directive - In stage 2, the informal structure of stage 1 is transformed into an hierarchical structure with a strong management team.
- Stage 3: Delegation - In stage 3, efforts are made to enhance technical efficiency and provide space for innovation in order to reduce costs and improve services.
- Stage 4: Coordination - In stage 4 the focus is directed towards the use of formal systems as a means of achieving better coordination.
- Stage 5: Collaboration - During stage 5, the focus is on the improvement of cooperation with the business.
3. Functions and Processes
3.1 Financial Management
- Provisioning value - The actual underlying costs of IT (creation costs), both tangible and intangible.
- Service value potential - The value-adding component based on the customer’s value perception or the expected additional utility and warranty that the customers can obtain compared to their own assets.
Concepts in financial management
- Cost Recovery, Value Center, or Accounting Center? - IT’s financial cycle starts with investment in resources that create the outputs. Customers identify those outputs as value, reinitiating the cycle. Depending on the acknowledgement of the added value, IT is then considered a cost center or a valuable asset for the business objectives.
- Chargeback: to charge or not to charge? - A chargeback model for IT can enable justification and transparency. Charging increases the customer organization’s awareness of the costs incurred to provide it with information.
- Financial Management implementation checklist - A number of example implementation steps for phased implementation: plan, analyze, design, implement, measure.
3.2 Service Portfolio Management(SPM)
The goal of service portfolio management is to realize maximum value while managing risks and costs.
The service portfolio covers three subsets of services:
- Service catalogue(稼働中、提供中のサービス) - The services that are available to customers.
- Service pipeline(検討中、開発中のサービス) - The services that are either under consideration or in development.
- Retired services(廃棄サービス) - Services that are phased out or withdrawn.
SPM is a dynamic and continuous process that entails the following work methods:
3.3 Demand Management
- Service packages - A service package is a detailed description of an IT service that can be delivered to customers.
- Service Level Package (SLP) - A defined level of utility and warranty for a particular service package, from the perspective of the user. Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a particular Pattern of Business Activity (PBA).
- Core Service Package (CSP) - A detailed description of a core service that may be shared by two or more service level packages.
- Line of Service (LOS) - A core service or supporting service that has multiple service level packages. A line of service is managed by a product manager and each service level package is designed to support a particular market segment.